Books and documents:
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà, Brauli Tamarit Tamarit.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.
Magdalena Grau, Agustí Chalaux.
Chapter 12. Monetary legislation.
- Introduction of the cheque-invoice.
- Types of cheque-invoice.
- Types of current accounts and monetary operations.
- Imperialization of all the current accounts.
- Types of accounting establishments.
After defining the most effective archic structure to prevent the
transformation of the legitimate rule on persons and of the legitimate
power on things, into an illegitimate power over and against persons, the
newly constituted State may face the task it has imposed on itself: the
construction of the bases of a libertarian, democratic, peaceful, informative
and solidary society.
In this task the State will have two tools available, two fundamental
instruments: the all-informative and all-responsibilizing cheque-invoice,
and the imperialization of all the telematic, monetary network.
We shall dedicate this chapter to the most important legislation of
the State, which is the legislation on the cheque-invoice.
1. Introduction of the cheque-invoice.
The monetary instrument we have called cheque-invoice has already been
described in chapter 4, and in chapter
5 we have spoken about its easy adaptation to a telematic network,
centralized on an imperial level. We shall then take for granted all those
specifications, of a theoretical or technical character, and shall analyze
their legal aspects.
Of course, the imperial State must reserve for itself any legislation
on the cheque-invoice, since this is the basic and fundamental isntrument
of all its political performance. Moreover, this legislation will have
to be very rigid and precise, all the details will have to be foreseen
and consequently legislated. In monetary matters, nothing will be left
to chance, because it is the rules of the game which must be established.
The first State action will be the legal suppression of all the monetary
instruments in force. It will be necessary to set a time limit for their
presentation and conversion into monetary units in a current account.
Immediately after that, it will be necessary to introduce by law the
exclusive utilization of the pro-telematic cheque-invoice in all market
operations and in all social-monetary acts.
Probably, this breaking-off will not be made instantly and, therefore,
the law will have to foresee a system of progressive transformation, so
that the necessary equipment and networks be introduced. For example, it
could be started in the large companies; then the small companies would
follow, and finally the retail shops and industries and the consumers.
Together with the legislation for the introduction of the pro-telematic
cheque invoice, it will be necessary to legislate also their application
details, the allowed monetary operations, and the activities of the so-called
concerns, in short: banks (Business Banks and Savings Banks).
2. Types of cheque-invoice.
The law must foresee the highest and best diversification of the cheque-invoices,
so that they may offer the highest and best analytic-statistic information
on the market.
It is necessary, especially, that the cheque-invoices separate the different
types of monetary operations, therefore, every type of operation will be
dealt with in a different type of cheque-invoice.
The mercantile-monetary operations are basically divided in three large
types, therefore there will be three main types of cheque-invoices:
Inter-companies cheque-invoices: they are the cheque-invoices covering
the sales-purchase of produced, non-finished, goods (see chapter
8, page 77) between companies.
Consumption cheque-invoices: they are the sales-purchase cheque-invoices
for produced, finished, goods (see also chapter
8, page 76) between consumer (buyer) and a retail shop or industry
Salary-private cheque-invoices: these are the cheque-invoices for
the sales-purchase of producing goods or private production forces (see
also chapter 8, page 75) between:
a worker, seller of labour
a capitalist, seller of capitals
a company owner, seller of company spirit
an inventor, seller of an invention and their respective company (buyer
of the force: labour, capital, company spirit, invention).
These cheque-invoices are, then, those used to pay the remunerations
to the private production forces, and these remunerations are called respectiely
interests, profits and royalties.
The salary-private cheque-invoices will not be made out for each single
merchandise, but will be global on a company level: every company will
establish a payroll of all its paid personnel, and this payroll will be
the cheque-invoice (which the Confederation of banks will distribute among
the different beneficiaries).
The three above-mentioned types of cheque-invoices may then be of two different
From the combination of the two classification standards six different sorts of
cheque-invoice are obtained; many sub-types are possible in terms of many other
standards, but we shall not detail them here, as they belong to specialists.
3. Types of current accounts and monetary operations.
The different sorts of current accounts to be opened in a bank, will
also be three:
Production current accounts (only in Business Banks): they are the
current accounts of the companies dedicated to production.
All the inter-company operations and salary-private operations are
carried out through one of these accounts -and every company may open as
many as it wants or needs-.
Production savings current accounts: they are the current accounts
in which utilitarian professionals (that is: workers, capitalists, company
owners, inventors) enter their salary-private remunerations, paid by the
company: salaries, interests, royalties and benefits, respectively.
Whether the utilitarian professional receives one only salary-private
remuneration or more than one, we shall have:
savings current accounts of uni-salary production (only Savings
savings current accounts of multi-salary production (only Business
In both cases, the operations possible through a production savings
current account will be only the following two:
Consumption savings current account (only in Savings Banks). These
current accounts may be fed, exclusively, by:
to invest a capital, by means of a suitable contract, either in a Business
Bank or directly in a company (if the investor is a uni-salaried one, since
on collecting the interests he will become a multi-salaried one, he will
have to cancel his uni-salaried current account and open a multi-salaried
to transfer the desired amount to the consumption current account, which
is explained hereafter.
private origin pruchasing power, coming from the production savings
communal origin purchasing power, coming from the legislated16
social solidarity salaries.
Starting from a consumption savings current account, of whichever origin
-private or communal- be the purchasing power, exclusively sales-purchase
operations of finished goods may be carried out: that is consumption operations.
In no case will any other sort of operation be able to be made, nor will
it be able to transfer amounts from this current account to any other.
4. Imperialization of all the current accounts.
The positive balances of all the current accounts of the three types
we have just described will be constitutionally imperialized, that means
that they will be socialized at a globally imperial level.
In practice this just means that the banks where these current accounts
will be in force, will not be able to use them to carry out their business:
the positive balances of current accounts will mean a communal saving which
only the geopolitical community, through its manager, the State, will be
able to put to work. The banks will manage the current acccounts, but they
will never be able to grant loans nor make any other operation based on
the positive balances of the current accounts, which are now called outer
The compensation of this imperialization will be the allocation of a
communal interest, say 6%, to all the imperialized positive balances.
In the following chapter we shall further enlarge on this subject.
5. Types of accounting establishments.
We must now explain the fundamental difference, already mentioned several
times, between Business Banks and Savings Banks.
This distinction is to be located in the widest context of the distinction
between utilitarian society and liberal society (see chapter
Business Banks and Savings Banks will be radically separated by the
sort of functions and services which, according to law, they will be able
to offer to the utilitarian society, and by the sort of remuneration they
will receive for these services.
Business Banks will be utilitarian concerns like any other, specialized
in offering accounting services to all the other, non-accounting, utilitarian
But their services will be solely and exclusively limited to the production
cycle. In fact, as we have already seen, in the Business Banks it will
only be possible to open production current accounts (companies' accounts)
and savings current accounts of multi-salaried production (for the multi-salaried
utilitarian professionals). This means that they will only handle purchasing
power corresponding to the production cycle, and they will never be able
to handle purchasing power belonging to the consumption cycle17.
The services offered by the Business Banks will be, fundamentally, the
In the first place, during the management of the previously mentioned
current accounts, and for this task, they will be paid by the Treasury
a commission agreed between the association of Business Banks18
and the monetary authorities of the State.
In the second place, based on the cheque-invoices signed or paid by
their customers, they will carry out all the accounting of all their customer-companies,
and will hold it always at their immediate disposal. It must be pointed
out that the multi-salaried utilitarian professionals will have to make
up companies, in order to collect their multiple incomes, under the juridical
form of stock companies, either individually or multi-individually: in
such a way that all the Business Banks' customers will be companies
In the third place, and this will be their task and their main business,
the Business Banks will be able to carry on the specifically banking business
of capitalization: that is, the conversion of the savings accumulated
in the current accounts, into capital usable in the production cycle.
In fact banks have always had among their tasks to supply the market with
the purchasing power which, in every specific time-space, it needs in order
to continue or to increase its productive processes. This purchasing power
to the production cycle receives quite suitably the name of capital. Banks
produce capital by means of a number of techniques and bank processes:
loans, drafts discount... which, as we have seen in Chapter
2 (Part One), always imply an invention of currency on the deposits
made by customers. But we have just said that imperialization of all the
positive balances of current accounts prevents the Business Banks from
capitalizing on these balances, outer resources. Then the Business Banks
will have to limit their invention of money only to:
own capitals and reserves;
the amounts which, coming from current accounts, be deposited on a fixed
term and, therefore, contractually and explicitly delivered to the
Bank for capitalization purposes. These term deposits in the Business Banks
will not be imperialized.
Finally, Business Banks will also be in charge, on appointment from the
State, of the distribution of the communal loans to investment, (see chapter
14) and, for this service, they will be paid, for every loan they will
grant, the normal bank interest (we point out that the communal credits
to investment imply an interest double than the ordinary bank interest).
The Savings Banks, on the other hand, will also give service
to the utilitarian society, but only within the consumption cycle. But
since the consumption cycle is socially globalizing, that is, it includes
all the members of the imperial society, we shall give the Savings Banks
a liberal Statute: their services will not be paid for directly by their
customers, but they will be free and financed by the community, through
the corresponding social solidarity salaries and budgets (see chapter
The main service of the Savings Banks is the management of the savings
current accounts of uni-salaried production and of the consumption savings
But, besides this really utilitarian service, the Savings Banks will
carry out non-utilitarian social functions, directly related to the social
life of each of the persons inscribed in them.
In the first place the Savings Banks -locally structured, by districts,
and confederated on an imperial level-, will act as Registry Office: every
new-born will be inscribed in the district Savings Bank, where immediately
a consumption current account will be opened in its name, with a telematic
number which will be held during the whole life, and which will identify
the individual in all his social activities.
The Savings Bank will take charge of releasing, keeping and filing away
all the other documents necessary in a civilized society: health card,
schooling book, car documents... police or justicial filing card, working
filing card, family book, passport, all of them having the same telematic
number previously mentioned.
The Savings Bank will also be the seat of the family Court for the families
therein recorded, and for other social and informative services, all of
them completely free.
distinction is made to know, at any time, how many uni-salaried persons
there are in the geopolitical community, and this we want to know because
one of the social goals suggested is in fact the disappearance of this
category of utilitarian professionals: the uni-salaried ones. This will
be possible thanks to the development of self-management, which implies
the participation of the workers in the company's profits (on this subject,
please see chapter 15).
consumption savings current accounts of utilitarian professionals will
be simultaneously fed by two sorts of purchasing power, because, besides
their salary-private remuneration, they receive a social solidarity
salary of a general sort, as we shall see in chapter
14; on the contrary, the non-utilitarian people will have, because
of the omni-solidarity principle, a consumption savings current account
exclusively fed by the communal purchasing power. As we shall see in chapter
14, these people are: those without a liberal profession nor utilitarian
job, for whichever reason; the families, irrespectively of the salary incomes
of their members; the liberal professionals; the liberal institutions;
the non-profit, free associations of citizens: all of them are simple consumers,
as opposed to the utilitarian professionals who are producers-consumers.
the two market cycles, «the production cycle» and «the
consumption cycle», see chapter 8.
we shall see in chapter 15, all the utilitarian
companies will be compelled to join associations.